Core functions


Returns the memory byte size of a Numpy array as an integer.


Returns the required memory of a Numpy array as a humanly readable string.


Calculate and return the mininum and maximum of an array.

Parameters:arr (ndarray) – Numpy array.
  • min (dtype) – Minimum of array.
  • max (dtype) – Maximum of array.
deepdish.apply_once(func, arr, axes, keepdims=True)[source]

Similar to numpy.apply_over_axes, except this performs the operation over a flattened version of all the axes, meaning that the function will only be called once. This only makes a difference for non-linear functions.

  • func (callback) – Function that operates well on Numpy arrays and returns a single value of compatible dtype.
  • arr (ndarray) – Array to do operation over.
  • axes (int or iterable) – Specifies the axes to perform the operation. Only one call will be made to func, with all values flattened.
  • keepdims (bool) – By default, this is True, so the collapsed dimensions remain with length 1. This is simlar to numpy.apply_over_axes in that regard. If this is set to False, the dimensions are removed, just like when using for instance numpy.sum over a single axis. Note that this is safer than subsequently calling squeeze, since this option will preserve length-1 dimensions that were not operated on.


>>> import deepdish as dd
>>> import numpy as np
>>> rs = np.random.RandomState(0)
>>> x = rs.uniform(size=(10, 3, 3))

Image that you have ten 3x3 images and you want to calculate each image’s intensity standard deviation:

>>> np.apply_over_axes(np.std, x, [1, 2]).ravel()
array([ 0.06056838,  0.08230712,  0.08135083,  0.09938963,  0.08533604,
        0.07830725,  0.066148  ,  0.07983019,  0.08134123,  0.01839635])

This is the same as x.std(1).std(1), which is not the standard deviation of all 9 pixels together. To fix this we can flatten the pixels and try again:

>>> x.reshape(10, 9).std(axis=1)
array([ 0.17648981,  0.32849108,  0.29409526,  0.25547501,  0.23649064,
        0.26928468,  0.20081239,  0.33052397,  0.29950855,  0.26535717])

This is exactly what this function does for you:

>>> dd.apply_once(np.std, x, [1, 2], keepdims=False)
array([ 0.17648981,  0.32849108,  0.29409526,  0.25547501,  0.23649064,
        0.26928468,  0.20081239,  0.33052397,  0.29950855,  0.26535717])

Argmax that returns an index tuple. Note that numpy.argmax will return a scalar index as if you had flattened the array.

Parameters:a (array_like) – Input array.
Returns:index – Tuple of index, even if a is one-dimensional. Note that this can immediately be used to index a as in a[index].
Return type:tuple


>>> import numpy as np
>>> import deepdish as dd
>>> a = np.arange(6).reshape(2,3)
>>> a
array([[0, 1, 2],
       [3, 4, 5]])
>>> dd.tupled_argmax(a)
(1, 2)
deepdish.timed(*args, **kwds)[source]

Context manager to make it easy to time the execution of a piece of code. This timer will never run your code several times and is meant more for simple in-production timing, instead of benchmarking. Reports the wall-clock time (using time.time) and not the processor time.

  • name (str) – Name of the timing block, to identify it.
  • file (file handler) – Which file handler to print the results to. Default is standard output. If a numpy array and size 1 is given, the time in seconds will be stored inside it. Ignored if callback is set.
  • callback (callable) – This offer even more flexibility than file. The callable will be called at the end of the execution with a single floating point argument with the elapsed time in seconds.


>>> import deepdish as dd
>>> import time

The timed function is a context manager, so everything inside the with block will be timed. The results will be printed by default to standard output:

>>> with dd.timed('Sleep'):  
...     time.sleep(1)
[timed] Sleep: 1.001035451889038 s

Using the callback parameter, we can accumulate multiple runs into a list:

>>> times = []
>>> for i in range(3):  
...     with dd.timed(callback=times.append):
...         time.sleep(1)
>>> times  
[1.0035350322723389, 1.0035550594329834, 1.0039470195770264]